Kassala State is located between latitudes 14.45 and 15.17 in the north and longitudes 34.40 and 37.00 to the east. Externally, it is bordered by Eritrea with 235 kilometer-long State and Ethiopia with 17 kilometers to the east. Internally, it is bordering by the Red Sea State in north east; Gedaref State to the south west; and the River Nile State in the north-west. The State’s population 1.752 million with annual growth rate of 2.51%. Sixty four per cent is rural population.
The Atbarah River runs through the State in its course from source in the northwest of Ethiopia to join the river Nile near Atbarah city in River Nile State. In In 1964, a dam was built on Atbara in order to provide irrigation water for the New Halfa Agricultural Scheme as well as hydroelectricity. The agricultural scheme was developed partly for resettling Sudanese Nubians (whose land was flooded after the building of the Aswan High Dam that submerged 500 kilometres of the Nile Valley in Egypt and Sudan) and partly for local nomads that were encouraged to become sedentary. A new twin dam, the Upper Atbarah & Setiet Dams, is built close to the junction of Upper Atbara and Setit rivers. The new dams are located ca. 80 km upstream from the Khashm El Girba Dam.
The Gash River, rising in southern Eritrea, near Asmara run a course of 480 km. It is known as the Mareb on its upper course and is used for irrigation around Teseney, in Eritrea, and around Kassala, in Sudan. It water dissipates in a plains area called Delta. It crosses Kassala town causes flash floods during the rainy seasons. It irrigates the Gash Agricultural Scheme.
Kassala State area is 42,285 square kilometers that constitutes 1.8% of the country total area. It has a subtropical climate dominated by northeast winds in winter and south westerly winds in the autumn.
Kassala, Sudan is at 15°28’N, 36°23’E, 500 m (1640 ft).
Rainfall varies between 300 mm in the south and 104 mm in the north of the rate. The highest rate of heat-marrow 44.5 degrees Celsius in summer and 16.8 in the winter.
A total cultivable area of 4.5 million acres. The most important agricultural projects Project New Halfa and Gash Delta project where cash crops projects such as corn, sesame, wheat, peanuts and cotton in addition to horticultural crops and vegetables are cultivated.
Kassala state is rich in livestock, it estimated at four million head of sheep, cows and camels and some fisheries. Estimated grasslands six million acres spread over semi-desert climate and savanna poor overcome them yearbooks plants and turf, which accounts for 90% of the livestock needs.
Kassala City: is the capital of the state.